Features

17. Absolutive marked subjects in some unergative verbs: borrokatu naiz (v dut )
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) (Ni) borrokatu naiz

Aldai, Gontzal. 2006. «Is Basque morphologically ergative? The semantic split-intransitive case marking system of Western Basque». In Beatriz Fernandez and Itziar Laka (eds.), Andolin Gogoan. Essays in honour of Professor Eguzkitza. Leioa: UPV/EHU. 117-138.

Aldai, Gontzal. 2009. «Euskararen kasu markaketaren aldakortasun dialektala». In Beatriz Fernández, Pablo Albizu and Ricardo Etxepare (eds.), Euskara eta euskarak: aldakortasun sintaktikoa aztergai. [Supplements of the International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology (ASJU), LII]. Donostia: UPV/EHU and Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia. 5-19.

Berro, Ane and Ricardo Etxepare. to appear. «Ergativity in Basque». In Jessica Coon, Lisa M.Travis and Diane Massam (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Ergativity. New York: Oxford University Press.

Berro, Ane. 2010. Unergative Predicates in Basque Varieties: Consequences for the Ergative Case Assignment. DEA research work, UPV/EHU. [Available in the Internet: http://www.ehu.eus/seg/ media/morf/5/12/2/1/sak/aneberrotesia.pdf]

Berro, Ane. 2012. «Three Levels of Root Insertion in Basque Intransitive Verbs». In Ernestina Carrilho and Beatriz Fernández (eds.), Journal of Portuguese Linguistics. Special Issue, 11-1. Lisboa: Ediçoes Colibrí-Universidade de Lisboa. 7-22.

Berro, Ane. 2015. Breaking verbs. From event structure to syntactic categories in Basque. Ph.D. Diss., UPV/EHU and Université Bordeaux Montaigne (UBM).

Etxepare, Ricardo. 2003. «Valency and argument structure in the Basque Verb». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 363-425.

Fernández, Beatriz. 1997. Egiturazko kasuaren erkaketa euskaraz. Bilbo: UPV/EHU.

Holmer, Anders. 1999. «An active analysis of Basque ergativity». Fontes Linguae Vasconum 31: 189-225.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

Laka, Itziar. 1993b. «Unergatives that Assign Ergative, Unaccusatives that Assign Accusative». In Jonathan D. Bobaljik and Colin Phillips (eds.), Papers on Case and Agreement I, MITWPL 18. Cambridge, MA: MITWPL. 149-172.

Levin, Beth. 1983. On the Nature of Ergativity. Ph.D. Diss., MIT.

Ortiz de Urbina, Jon. 1989. Parameters in the grammar of Basque. Dordrecht: Foris.

Oyharçabal, Beñat. 1992. «Structural case and inherent case marking: Ergaccusativity in Basque». Supplements of the International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology (ASJU), XXVII. Donostia: Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia. 309-342.

Generalized pattern. Generally, unergative verbs take an ergative subject and the *edun ‘have’ auxiliary.

(1) (Nik) borrokatu/borroka egin dut
I.ERG fight.PTCP/fight do.PTCP (3ABS).have.1SG.ERG
‘I have fought.’

Variational pattern. In some varieties, some unergative verbs take an absolutive subject and izan ‘be’ auxiliary (afaldu ‘have dinner’, bazkaldu ‘have lunch’, borrokatu ‘fight’, jokatu ‘play’ etc.)

(2) (Ni) borrokatu naiz
I.ABS fight.PTCP 1SG.ABS.be
‘I have fought.’

Reported in: eastern varieties (Oihartzabal 1992, Aldai 2006, 2009).

Chapter: Case and Agreement

Keywords: auxiliary alternation, case, ergativity, unergative verbs

References:

Aldai (2006, 2009), Berro (2010, 2012, 2015), Berro and Etxepare (to appear), Etxepare (2003), Fernández (1997), Holmer (1999), Hualde (2016), Laka (1993b), Levin (1983), Oyharçabal (1992), Ortiz de Urbina (1989)

Aldai, Gontzal. 2006. «Is Basque morphologically ergative? The semantic split-intransitive case marking system of Western Basque». In Beatriz Fernandez and Itziar Laka (eds.), Andolin Gogoan. Essays in honour of Professor Eguzkitza. Leioa: UPV/EHU. 117-138.

Aldai, Gontzal. 2009. «Euskararen kasu markaketaren aldakortasun dialektala». In Beatriz Fernández, Pablo Albizu and Ricardo Etxepare (eds.), Euskara eta euskarak: aldakortasun sintaktikoa aztergai. [Supplements of the International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology (ASJU), LII]. Donostia: UPV/EHU and Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia. 5-19.

Berro, Ane and Ricardo Etxepare. to appear. «Ergativity in Basque». In Jessica Coon, Lisa M.Travis and Diane Massam (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Ergativity. New York: Oxford University Press.

Berro, Ane. 2010. Unergative Predicates in Basque Varieties: Consequences for the Ergative Case Assignment. DEA research work, UPV/EHU. [Available in the Internet: http://www.ehu.eus/seg/ media/morf/5/12/2/1/sak/aneberrotesia.pdf]

Berro, Ane. 2012. «Three Levels of Root Insertion in Basque Intransitive Verbs». In Ernestina Carrilho and Beatriz Fernández (eds.), Journal of Portuguese Linguistics. Special Issue, 11-1. Lisboa: Ediçoes Colibrí-Universidade de Lisboa. 7-22.

Berro, Ane. 2015. Breaking verbs. From event structure to syntactic categories in Basque. Ph.D. Diss., UPV/EHU and Université Bordeaux Montaigne (UBM).

Etxepare, Ricardo. 2003. «Valency and argument structure in the Basque Verb». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 363-425.

Fernández, Beatriz. 1997. Egiturazko kasuaren erkaketa euskaraz. Bilbo: UPV/EHU.

Holmer, Anders. 1999. «An active analysis of Basque ergativity». Fontes Linguae Vasconum 31: 189-225.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

Laka, Itziar. 1993b. «Unergatives that Assign Ergative, Unaccusatives that Assign Accusative». In Jonathan D. Bobaljik and Colin Phillips (eds.), Papers on Case and Agreement I, MITWPL 18. Cambridge, MA: MITWPL. 149-172.

Levin, Beth. 1983. On the Nature of Ergativity. Ph.D. Diss., MIT.

Ortiz de Urbina, Jon. 1989. Parameters in the grammar of Basque. Dordrecht: Foris.

Oyharçabal, Beñat. 1992. «Structural case and inherent case marking: Ergaccusativity in Basque». Supplements of the International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology (ASJU), XXVII. Donostia: Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia. 309-342.

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Beizama
Central Basque
Yes
Lourdes Otaegi
Errenteria
Central Basque
Yes
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
Yes
Imotz
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Céline Mounole
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñaki Camino
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Maitena Duhalde
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
No
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
No
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
No
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
No
Koldo Zuazo
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.