Features

5. Number agreement: -it in ditransitive constructions (v -zki) 
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) Zuk Joni liburuak ekarri ditiozu

Zuazo, Koldo. 2004. Euskalkiak, herriaren lekukoak. Donostia: Elkar.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2013. The dialects of Basque. Reno: University of Nevada.

Generalized pattern. Basque arguments trigger number agreement. In transitive forms, plural objects are cross-referenced by the pluralizer -it. Ditransitive forms including a plural object are of the dizkiozu-type with -zki instead.

(1a) Zuk liburuak ekarri dituzu
you.ERG book.ABS bring.PTCP (3ABS).PL.have.2SG.ERG
‘You have brought the books to Jon.’
(1b) Zuk Joni liburuak ekarri dizkiozu
you.ERG Jon.DAT book.ABS give.PTCP (3ABS).have.PL.APPL.3SG.DAT.2SG.ERG
‘You have given Jon the books.’

Variational pattern. Some varieties favor -it (instead of -zki) in ditransitive constructions.

(2) Zuk Joni liburuak ekarri ditiozu
you.ERG Jon.DAT book.ABS give.PTCP (3ABS).PL.have.APPL.3SG.DAT.2SG.ERG
‘You have given Jon the books.’ 

Reported in: «This innovation does not seem to be very old; it has spread throughout most of central and western Navarre. This excludes Burunda, Ergoiena, and Etxarri Aranatz, and is very weak in Baztan. On the other hand, it is present in Imotz, Basaburua, northern Basaburua Txikia, and eastern Larraun. It can also be hard in the northeastern Gipuzkoa, although it has recently started to disappear. I has best survived in Hondarribia (Gipuzkoa).» (Zuazo 2013: 73). See also, Zuazo (2004: 125, 130) for Hondarribia. 

Chapter: Case and Agreement

Keywords: ditransitive forms, number agreement, pluralizers

References:

Zuazo (2004, 2013)

Zuazo, Koldo. 2004. Euskalkiak, herriaren lekukoak. Donostia: Elkar.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2013. The dialects of Basque. Reno: University of Nevada.

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BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Azpeitia
Central Basque
Yes
Patxi Goenaga
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
Yes
Imotz
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juan Jose Zubiri
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Orreaga Ibarra
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
Yes
Maider Bedaxagar
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
No
Xabier Bilbao
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Lekeitio
Western Basque
No
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
No
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
No
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.