Features

15. Past finite verbal forms involving 3rd person absolutive arguments: Ø (v z)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(3a) Jon hondartzan egoan
(4a) Surf-ohola ekarri eban
(4b) Surf-ohola ekarri eustan

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

Generalized pattern. Finite verbal forms show a morpheme z- in the past tense when the absolutive argument (both unaccusative subject and transtive object) is 3rd person.

(1a) Jon hondartzan zegoen
Jon.ABS beach.INE (3ABS).be.PST
‘Jon was on the beach.’
(1b) Jonek surf-ohola zekarren
Jon.ERG surfboard.ABS (3ABS).bring.(3ERG).PST
‘Jon was carrying the surfboard.’
(2a) Jonek surf-ohola ekarri zuen
Jon.ERG surfboard.ABS bring.PTCP (3ABS).have.(3ERG).PST
‘(S)he brought the surfboard.’
(2b) Jonek surf-ohola ekarri zidan
Jon.ERG surfboard.ABS bring.PTCP (3ABS).(have).APPL.1SG.DAT.(3ERG).PST
   ‘(S)he brought me the surfboard.’

Variational patternSome varieties show Ø instead.

(3a) Jon hondartzan egoan
Jon.ABS beach.INE (3ABS).be.PST
‘Jon was on the beach.’
(3b) Jonek surf-ohola ekarren
Jon.ERG surfboard.ABS (3ABS).bring.(3ERG).PST
‘Jon was carrying the surfboard.’
(4a) Jonek surf-ohola ekarri eban
Jon.ERG surfboard.ABS bring.PTCP (3ABS).have.(3ERG).PST
‘Jon brought the surfboard.’
(4b) Jonek surf-ohola ekarri eustan
Jon.ERG surfboard.ABS bring.PTCP (3ABS).(have).APPL.1SG.DAT.(3ERG).PST
‘Jon brought me the surfboard.’

Reported in: Western varieties (Zuazo 2013: 50; Hualde 2016).

Chapter: Case and Agreement

Keywords: tense markers, third person

Notes:

«In the past form of izan ‘to be’,  zen ~ zan ‘(s)he was’, the initial z- may be analyzed as part of the verbal root and does not show the same alternation with zero.» (Hualde 2016).

References:

Hualde (2003, 2016)

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.