Features

26. Auxiliary roots in non-indicative (di)transitive forms:  -gi- (v -za-)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) egin dagigun

Bonaparte, Louis Lucien. 1869. Le verbe basque en tableaux, accompagné de notes gramaticales, selon les huits dialectes de l'euskara. Londres: Strageways and Walden. [Reprinted in 1992. Opera Omnia Vasconice. Bilbo: Euskaltzaindia]

Euskaltzaindia. 1987. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak II. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1997]

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

Mitxelena, Koldo. 1960. «Gipuzcoano y vasco». In Joseba A. Lakarra and Iñigo Ruiz Arzalluz (eds.), Luis Michelena. Obras Completas. VII. Fonética y Fonología, Morfosintaxis y Dialectología. 697-700.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2013. The dialects of Basque. Reno: University of Nevada.

Generalized pattern. Non-indicative (di)transitive forms show the root -za-, instead of the root -u- (*edun 'have') of the indicative.

(1) egin dezagun
do (3ABS).ZA.1PL.ERG.COMP
‘let’s do it.’

Variational pattern. The root -gi- (presumably, egin 'do') has substituted -za- in some dialects.

(2) egin dagigun
do (3ABS).GI.1PL.ERG.COMP
‘let’s do it.’

Reported in: Western varieties (Zuazo 2013: 49).

Chapter: Auxiliary Alternation

Keywords: auxiliary alternation, mood, root alternation

Notes:

-za- is attested mainly in Central and Eastern dialects, although historically it was generalized across dialects (Mitxelena 1960).

References:

Bonaparte (1869), Euskaltzaindia (1987), Hualde (2003, 2016), Mitxelena (1960), Zuazo (2013: 49)

Bonaparte, Louis Lucien. 1869. Le verbe basque en tableaux, accompagné de notes gramaticales, selon les huits dialectes de l'euskara. Londres: Strageways and Walden. [Reprinted in 1992. Opera Omnia Vasconice. Bilbo: Euskaltzaindia]

Euskaltzaindia. 1987. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak II. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1997]

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

Mitxelena, Koldo. 1960. «Gipuzcoano y vasco». In Joseba A. Lakarra and Iñigo Ruiz Arzalluz (eds.), Luis Michelena. Obras Completas. VII. Fonética y Fonología, Morfosintaxis y Dialectología. 697-700.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2013. The dialects of Basque. Reno: University of Nevada.

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BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
Yes
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
Yes
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
Yes
Ane Odria
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Itsasondo
Central Basque
Yes
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.