Features

28. Ditransitive auxiliary forms (-i, -ts, -ra)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) eman deutsut
(3) eman d(er)autzut

Fernández, Beatriz. 2012. «-(K)i eta -ra». International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology (ASJU), 46-2. Bilbo: UPV/EHU. 257-270.

Fernández, Beatriz. 2013. «-(K)i hiztegian, eta hiztegiaz harantzago». International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology (ASJU), 47-2. Bilbo: UPV/EHU. 1-26.

Fernández, Beatriz. 2015. «The sintax of -(k)i, a Basque preposition». In Xulio Sousa, Carlota de Benito and Víctor Lara (eds.), Dialectologia. Special Issue. Syntactic Variation in Western European Languages. From the noun phrase to clause structure. 81-107.

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

Lafon, René. 1951. «La langue de Bernard Dechapare». BAP 7, 309-338.

Mounole, Céline. 2015. «Datibo komunztaduraz eta laguntzaile hirupertsonalen diakroniaz». In Beatriz Fernández and Pello Salaburu (eds.), Ibon Sarasola, Gorazarre. Homenatge, Homenaje. Bilbo: UPV/EHU. 473-490.

Rezac, Milan. 2006. «Agreement displacement in Basque». manuscript, UPV/EHU. [Available in the Internet: http://www.umr7023.cnrs.fr/spip.php?article675]

Schuchardt, Hugo. 1893. «Sobre la formación de las flexiones de relación del verbo vasco». Boletín de la Real Sociedad Vascongada de los Amigos del País 28, 2-3. 217-337.

Trask, Larry. 1981. «Basque verbal morphology». In Euskalarien Nazioarteko Jardunaldiak [Iker 1]. Bilbo: Euskaltzaindia. 285-304.

Trask, Larry. 1997. The history of Basque. London: Routledge.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2004. Euskalkiak, herriaren lekukoak. Donostia: Elkar.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2013. The dialects of Basque. Reno: University of Nevada.

Generalized pattern. Dative clitics are systematically preceded by a APPL in the finite verbal form (the so-called dative flag). The morphological form of this APPL in ditransitive forms is -i.

(1) eman dizut
give.PTCP (3ABS).(have).I.2DAT.1SG.ERG
‘I give it to you.’

Reported in: Central varieties (Hualde 2003, 2016).

Variational pattern 1. The particular form of this APPL gives rise to morphological variation in ditransitive verbal forms. Some varieties show -ts (instead of -i) and an overt have root (-u-).

(2) eman deutsut
give.PTCP (3ABS).have.TS.2DAT.1SG.ERG
‘I give it to you.’

Reported in: Western varieties (Zuazo 2013: 49; Hualde 2003, 2016).

Variational pattern 2. Other varieties show a similar pattern to variational pattern 1 that also includes a causative head -ra- (or its historical vestige).

(3) eman d(er)autzut
give.PTCP (3ABS).CAUS.have.TS.2DAT
‘I give it to you.’

Reported in: Zuberoan (Zuazo 2004: 39, 2013: 31), Lapurdian, Low Navarrese (Hualde 2016).

Chapter: Auxiliary Alternation

Keywords: P incorporation, applicatives, auxiliary alternation, causatives, dative agreement/clitics, dative flag, datives, ditransitive forms, root alternation

Notes:

Some authors consider *i(n) ‘give’ to be a ditransitive root different from izan ‘be’ and *edun ‘have’. See Lakarra (2008), Mounole (2015), and references therein.

References:

Fernández (2012, 2013, 2015), Hualde (2003, 2016), Lafon (1961), Mounole (2015), Rezac (2006), Schuchardt (1893), Trask (1997, 1981), Zuazo (2004, 2013)

Fernández, Beatriz. 2012. «-(K)i eta -ra». International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology (ASJU), 46-2. Bilbo: UPV/EHU. 257-270.

Fernández, Beatriz. 2013. «-(K)i hiztegian, eta hiztegiaz harantzago». International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology (ASJU), 47-2. Bilbo: UPV/EHU. 1-26.

Fernández, Beatriz. 2015. «The sintax of -(k)i, a Basque preposition». In Xulio Sousa, Carlota de Benito and Víctor Lara (eds.), Dialectologia. Special Issue. Syntactic Variation in Western European Languages. From the noun phrase to clause structure. 81-107.

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

Lafon, René. 1951. «La langue de Bernard Dechapare». BAP 7, 309-338.

Mounole, Céline. 2015. «Datibo komunztaduraz eta laguntzaile hirupertsonalen diakroniaz». In Beatriz Fernández and Pello Salaburu (eds.), Ibon Sarasola, Gorazarre. Homenatge, Homenaje. Bilbo: UPV/EHU. 473-490.

Rezac, Milan. 2006. «Agreement displacement in Basque». manuscript, UPV/EHU. [Available in the Internet: http://www.umr7023.cnrs.fr/spip.php?article675]

Schuchardt, Hugo. 1893. «Sobre la formación de las flexiones de relación del verbo vasco». Boletín de la Real Sociedad Vascongada de los Amigos del País 28, 2-3. 217-337.

Trask, Larry. 1981. «Basque verbal morphology». In Euskalarien Nazioarteko Jardunaldiak [Iker 1]. Bilbo: Euskaltzaindia. 285-304.

Trask, Larry. 1997. The history of Basque. London: Routledge.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2004. Euskalkiak, herriaren lekukoak. Donostia: Elkar.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2013. The dialects of Basque. Reno: University of Nevada.

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Céline Mounole
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñaki Camino
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
Yes
Maider Bedaxagar
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
No
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
No
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
No
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
No
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.