Features

9. Differential object  marking: ikusi nizun  (v ikusi zintudan)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) Nik zuri ikusi nizun
(3) Nik zuri ikusi dizut

Fernández, Beatriz and Milan Rezac. 2010. «Datibo osagarri bitxiak eta Datiboaren Lekualdatzea: ari nai diyot eta kanta egin nazu bidegurutzean». In Beatriz Fernandez, Pablo Albizu and Ricardo Etxepare (eds.), Euskara eta euskarak: aldakortasun sintaktikoa aztergai. Supplements of the International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology (ASJU), LII. UPV/EHU. 113-149.

Fernández, Beatriz and Milan Rezac. 2016. «Differential object marking in Basque varieties». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 93-137.

Hualde, José Ignacio, Gorka Elordieta and Arantzazu Elordieta. 1994. The Basque dialect of Lekeitio. Bilbo and Donostia: PV/EHU and Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia. Supplements of the International Journal of Basque Philology ASJU 34.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

Mounole, Céline. 2012. «Evolution of the transitive verbs in Basque and apparition of datively marked patients». In Gilles Authier and Katharina Haude (eds.), Ergativity and Voice. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 355-379.

Odria, Ane. 2014. «Differential object marking and the nature of dative case in Basque varieties». Linguistic Variation, 14-2. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 289-317.

Odria, Ane. 2017. Differential Object Marking and datives in Basque syntax. Ph.D. diss., UPV/EHU.

Rezac, Milan. 2006. «Agreement displacement in Basque». manuscript, UPV/EHU. [Available in the Internet: http://www.umr7023.cnrs.fr/spip.php?article675]

Alternative name: Basque leísmo (Rezac 2006), quirky objects (Fernández and Rezac 2010)

Generalized pattern. Transitive objects are marked by absolutive case and are cross-referenced by absolutive agreement morphemes on the auxiliary.

(1a) Nik zu ikusi zaitut
I.ERG you.ABS see.PTCP 2ABS.have.1SG.ERG
‘I have seen you.’
(1b) Nik zu ikusi zintudan
I.ERG you.ABS see.PTCP 2ABS.have.1SG.ERG.PST
'I saw you.'

Variational pattern. In past verbal forms, animate objects are marked by dative case and are cross-referenced by dative agreement morphemes on the auxiliary.

(2) Nik zuri ikusi nizun
I.ERG you.DAT see.PTCP 1SG.ERG.have.APPL.2DAT.PST
‘I saw you.’

Subvariational pattern
. Some varieties show dative agreement with the object even in present forms.

(3) Nik zuri ikusi dizut
I.ERG you.DAT see.PTCP (3ABS).have.APPL.2DAT.1SG.ERG
'I have seen you'

Chapter: Case and Agreement

Keywords: agreement/clitics, animacy, case, datives, differential object marking

References:

Fernández and Rezac (2010, 2016), Hualde (2016), Hualde, Elordieta and Elordieta (1994: 86), Mounole (2012), Odria (2014, 2017), Rezac (2006)

Fernández, Beatriz and Milan Rezac. 2010. «Datibo osagarri bitxiak eta Datiboaren Lekualdatzea: ari nai diyot eta kanta egin nazu bidegurutzean». In Beatriz Fernandez, Pablo Albizu and Ricardo Etxepare (eds.), Euskara eta euskarak: aldakortasun sintaktikoa aztergai. Supplements of the International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology (ASJU), LII. UPV/EHU. 113-149.

Fernández, Beatriz and Milan Rezac. 2016. «Differential object marking in Basque varieties». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 93-137.

Hualde, José Ignacio, Gorka Elordieta and Arantzazu Elordieta. 1994. The Basque dialect of Lekeitio. Bilbo and Donostia: PV/EHU and Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia. Supplements of the International Journal of Basque Philology ASJU 34.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

Mounole, Céline. 2012. «Evolution of the transitive verbs in Basque and apparition of datively marked patients». In Gilles Authier and Katharina Haude (eds.), Ergativity and Voice. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 355-379.

Odria, Ane. 2014. «Differential object marking and the nature of dative case in Basque varieties». Linguistic Variation, 14-2. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 289-317.

Odria, Ane. 2017. Differential Object Marking and datives in Basque syntax. Ph.D. diss., UPV/EHU.

Rezac, Milan. 2006. «Agreement displacement in Basque». manuscript, UPV/EHU. [Available in the Internet: http://www.umr7023.cnrs.fr/spip.php?article675]

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
Yes
Patxi Goenaga
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
Yes
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
Yes
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
Yes
Imotz
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
Yes
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
Yes
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
Yes
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Orreaga Ibarra
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñaki Camino
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
Yes
Patxi Goenaga
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
Yes
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
Yes
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
Yes
Imotz
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
Yes
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
Yes
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
Yes
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Orreaga Ibarra
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.