Features

43. Sociative: -gaz  (v -kin)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) Zugaz etorri naiz
(3) Andreakaz etorri naiz
(4) Andreekin etorri naiz

Euskaltzaindia. 1985. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak I. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1991]

Goenaga, Patxi. in progress. Euskal gramatika: egiturak eta osagaiak. Euskaltzaindia.

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Oyharçabal, Beñat. in progress. Grammaire Basque. Euskaltzaindia.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2004. Euskalkiak, herriaren lekukoak. Donostia: Elkar.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2008. Euskalkiak, euskararen dialektoak. Donostia: Elkar.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2013. The dialects of Basque. Reno: University of Nevada.

Alternative name: Comitative (Hualde 2003)

Generalized pattern. The sociative postposition is mainly -kin. This postposition is systematically preceded by a genitive.

(1) Zurekin etorri naiz
you.GEN.SOC come.PTCP 1SG.ABS.be
‘I came with you.’

Variational pattern 1. Instead of -kin, -gaz is documented in some varieties. Contrary to -kin, -gaz is never preceded by a genitive. -gaz embraces the animacy marker -ga and the instrumental -z.

(2) Zugaz etorri naiz
you.SOC come.PTCP 1SG.ABS.be
‘I came with you.’

Reported in: western dialects (Hualde 2003: 184); Bizkaian and Gipuzkoan areas (Hualde 2003: 184); most of the Western Basque area (Zuazo 2013: 47).

Subvariational pattern 1
. In those varieties where -gaz is attested, plural forms of the sociative can be also formed in the same fashion (-kaz, that is, pluralizer, animacy marker +instrumental).

(3) Andreakaz etorri naiz
women.SOC come.PTCP 1SG.ABS.be
‘I came with the women.’

Reported in: wide area of Bizkaia (Zuazo 2013: 47).

Subvariational pattern 2
Instead of -gaz plural sociatives shift to -kin.

(4) Andreekin etorri naiz
women.SOC come.PTCP SG.ABS.be
‘I came with the women.’

Reported in: Deba Valley of Gipuzkoa and in eastern Bizkaia (Zuazo 2013: 47).

Chapter: Postpositions

Keywords: animacy, instrumental, postpositions, sociative (comitative)

Notes:

«pluraleko -kaz horren eremua murritzagoa da; sartaldean erabiltzen da gehien bat. Hauxe da, hain zuzen, mendebaleko azpieuskalki biak bereizten dituen ezaugarrietako bat, -kin erabiltzen delako sortaldean (Zuazo 2008: 70).»

References:

Euskaltzaindia (1985), Goenaga (in progress), Hualde (2003), Oyharçabal (in progress), Zuazo (2004, 2008, 2013)

Euskaltzaindia. 1985. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak I. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1991]

Goenaga, Patxi. in progress. Euskal gramatika: egiturak eta osagaiak. Euskaltzaindia.

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Oyharçabal, Beñat. in progress. Grammaire Basque. Euskaltzaindia.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2004. Euskalkiak, herriaren lekukoak. Donostia: Elkar.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2008. Euskalkiak, euskararen dialektoak. Donostia: Elkar.

Zuazo, Koldo. 2013. The dialects of Basque. Reno: University of Nevada.

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Lekeitio
Western Basque
No
Arantzazu Elordieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
No
Koldo Zuazo
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
No
Xabier Bilbao
Loiu
Western Basque
No
Oihana Astobieta
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.