Features

44. Sociative: -kilan (v -kin)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) Airatu da bertze batekilan

Euskaltzaindia (forthcoming). Euskararen gramatika orokorra. Ms., Euskaltzaindia.

Euskaltzaindia. 1985. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak I. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1991]

Euskaltzaindia. 1999. Euskal gramatika. Lehen urratsak - V. Mendeko perpausak 1. Bilbo: Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1991]

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Lafitte, Pierre. 1944. Grammaire Basque (Navarro-Labourdin Littèraire). Baiona: Librairie Le Livre. [Reprinted in 1979. Donostia: Elkar]

Oyharçabal, Beñat. in progress. Grammaire Basque. Euskaltzaindia.

Generalized pattern. The sociative postposition is mainly -kin. This postposition is systematically preceded by a genitive.

(1) Zurekin etorri naiz
you.GEN.SOC come.PTCP 1SG.ABS.be
‘I came with you.’                    (example also in 27 Sociative: -gaz (v -kin))

Variational pattern. In some varieties, the postposition -kin alternates with -kilan which includes an allative-like -la sandwiched between -ki and -n.

(2) Airatu da bertze batekilan
leave.PTCP 3SG.ABS.be someone else.SOC
‘(S)he left with someone else.’

Chapter: Postpositions

Keywords: genitive, postpositions, sociative (comitative)

Notes:

-kilan departs from -kin in that it involves «un mouvement pour se joindre à quelqu’un» whereas -kin expresses «l’union réalisée.» As Lafitte himself points out «beaucoup de Basques ne respectent pas ces nuances.» (Lafitte 1979 [1944]: 60).

 

Epelde (2004) sees no difference between both -kin and -kilan in Larresoro Basque.

References:

Euskaltzaindia (1985, 1999, forthcoming), Hualde (2003), Lafitte (1944), Oyharçabal (in progress)

Euskaltzaindia (forthcoming). Euskararen gramatika orokorra. Ms., Euskaltzaindia.

Euskaltzaindia. 1985. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak I. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1991]

Euskaltzaindia. 1999. Euskal gramatika. Lehen urratsak - V. Mendeko perpausak 1. Bilbo: Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1991]

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Lafitte, Pierre. 1944. Grammaire Basque (Navarro-Labourdin Littèraire). Baiona: Librairie Le Livre. [Reprinted in 1979. Donostia: Elkar]

Oyharçabal, Beñat. in progress. Grammaire Basque. Euskaltzaindia.

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
Yes
Maider Bedaxagar
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
No
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Lekeitio
Western Basque
No
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
No
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
No
Koldo Zuazo
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.