Features

45. Sociative/instrumental alternation: -kin, -kilan (v -z)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) Aizkorarekin moztu du enborra
(3) Aizkorarekilan moztu du enborra

Euskaltzaindia. 1985. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak I. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1991]

Goenaga, Patxi. in progress. Euskal gramatika: egiturak eta osagaiak. Euskaltzaindia.

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

de Rijk, Rudolf P.G.. 2008. Standard Basque: A progressive grammar. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

Generalized pattern. Instrumentals are generally expressed by the instrumental postposition -z.

(1) Aizkoraz moztu du enborra
axe.INS cut.PTCP 3SG.ABS.have.3SG.ERG trunk.ABS
‘(S)he cut the log with an axe.’

Variational pattern 1. Some varieties prefer the sociative -kin instead of the instrumental -z to express instrumentals.

(2) Aizkorarekin moztu du enborra
Axe.GEN.SOC cut.PTCP 3SG.ABS.have.3SG.ERG trunk.ABS
‘(S)he cut the log with an axe.’

Variational pattern 2. Other varieties show also -kilan.

(3) Aizkorarekilan moztu du enborra
Axe.GEN.SOC cut.PTCP 3SG.ABS.have.3SG.ERG trunk.ABS
‘(S)he cut the log with an axe.’

Chapter: Postpositions

Keywords: instrumental, postposition alternation, postpositions, sociative (comitative)

Notes:

-kilan departs from -kin in that it involves «un mouvement pour se joindre à quelqu’un» whereas -kin expresses «l’union réalisée.» As Lafitte himself points out «beaucoup de Basques ne respectent pas ces nuances.» (Lafitte 1979 [1944]: 60).

 

Epelde (2004) sees no difference between both -kin and -kilan in Larresoro Basque.

References:

Euskaltzaindia (1985), Goenaga (in progress), Hualde (2003), de Rijk (2008)

Euskaltzaindia. 1985. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak I. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1991]

Goenaga, Patxi. in progress. Euskal gramatika: egiturak eta osagaiak. Euskaltzaindia.

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

de Rijk, Rudolf P.G.. 2008. Standard Basque: A progressive grammar. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
Yes
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
Yes
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
Yes
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
Yes
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
Yes
Imotz
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
Yes
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
Yes
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
Yes
Urtzi Etxeberria
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Céline Mounole
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Orreaga Ibarra
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñaki Camino
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
Yes
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Maitena Duhalde
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
No
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Loiu
Western Basque
No
Oihana Astobieta
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.