Features

49. Animate locatives: baitan  (v -gan)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) Ez dut esperantzarik ez ihes-lekurik zu baitan baizik

Euskaltzaindia. 1985. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak I. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1991]

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

Generalized pattern. Animate locatives can be expressed by forms including an animacy morpheme -ga plus a locative postposition (inessive, allative and so on).

(1) Ez dut esperantzarik ez ihes-lekurik zugan baizik
no have.1SG.ERG hope.PRTV no place.to.escape.PRTV you.GA.INE apart.from
‘I have no hope no place to escape to apart from you.’

Variational pattern. Some varieties express animates also by baita-, to which the locative postposition is attached (baita-n -innesive-, baita-ra -allative- baita-tik -ablative-).

(2) Ez dut esperantzarik ez ihes-lekurik zu baitan baizik
no have.1SG.ERG hope.PRTV no place.to.escape.PRTV you.BAIT.INE apart.from
‘I have no hope no place to escape to apart from you.’

              (Example adapted from Leon Leon, Jesus-Kristoren Imitacionea 1929)

Chapter: Postpositions (Locatives)

Keywords: animacy, locatives, postpositions

Notes:

Animate locative baita- is unattested in Egungo Testuen Corpusa/Corpus of Contemporary Basque (ETC) but attested in Euskal Klasikoen Corpusa/Classic Basque Corpus (EKC) also in XX. century.

References:

Euskaltzaindia (1985: 348-352), Hualde (2003: 197, 2016)

Euskaltzaindia. 1985. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak I. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1991]

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

Hualde, José Ignacio. 2016. «On Basque dialects». In Beatriz Fernández and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), Microparameters in the grammar of Basque. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 15-36.

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
Yes
Imotz
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Céline Mounole
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñaki Camino
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Maitena Duhalde
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
No
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
No
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
No
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
No
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.