Features

55. Expressing possession: eduki, ukan  (v izan/*edun)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(3a) (Nik) seme bat daukat
(3b) (Nik) seme bat eduki dut
(3c) (Nik) seme bat ukan/ukanen dut

Albizu, Pablo. 2002. «Basque inflectional morphology: Redefining [Cases]». In Xabier Artiagoitia, Patxi Goenaga and Joseba A. Lakarra (eds.), Erramu Boneta: Festcrift for Rudolf P.G. de Rijk. [Supplements of the International Journal of Basque Lingustics and Philology (ASJU) XLIV]. Bilbo: UPV/EHU. 1-20.

Arregi, Karlos. 2004. «The Have / Be alternation in Basque». manuscript, Univ of Chicago.

Euskaltzaindia. 1987. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak II. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1997]

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

de Rijk, Rudolf P.G.. 2008. Standard Basque: A progressive grammar. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

Generalized pattern. *edun ‘have’ is not only an auxiliary but also a main verb expressing possession.

(1) Nik seme bat dut
I.ERG son one.ABS (3ABS).have.1SG.ERG
‘I have a son.’

Crucially, in structures where the presence of the main verb is required, as for the perfective participle (2a), future participle (2b) or any other non-finite form such as the nominalized verbal noun in (2c), there is no such a form as *edun ‘have’ but izan ‘be’.

(2a) Nik seme bat izan dut
I.ERG son one.ABS be.PTCP (3ABS).have.1SG.ERG
‘I have a son.’
(2b) Nik seme bat izango dut
I.ERG son one.ABS be.PROS (3ABS).have.1SG.ERG
‘I have a son.’
(2c) Seme bat izatea esperientzia zoragarria da
son one.ABS be.NMLZ experience wonderful (3ABS).be
‘To have a son is a wonderful experience.’

Variational pattern 1. In some varieties, the lexical verb eduki ‘possessive have’ is the alternative to izan ‘be’/*edun ‘have’ for expressing possession.

(3a) (Nik) seme bat daukat
I.ERG son one.ABS 3ABS.EDUKI.1SG.ERG
‘I have a son.’
(3b) (Nik) seme bat eduki dut
I.ERG son one.ABS EDUKI.PTCP (3ABS).have.1SG.ERG
‘I have had a son.’

Variational pattern 2. Alternatively, in north-eastern varieties, ukan ‘possessive have’ is also attested in its participial form.

(3c) (Nik) seme bat ukan/ukanen dut
I.ERG son one.ABS UKAN.PTCP/UKAN.PROS (3ABS).have.1SG.ERG
‘I have had/will have a son.’

Chapter: (In)Transitivity

Keywords: (in)transitivity, auxiliary alternation, possessive have

References:

For eduki, Albizu (2002), Arregi (2004), de Rijk (2008: 307), Hualde (2003: 221), For ukan, Euskaltzaindia (1987: 122-3), Hualde (2003: 221)

Albizu, Pablo. 2002. «Basque inflectional morphology: Redefining [Cases]». In Xabier Artiagoitia, Patxi Goenaga and Joseba A. Lakarra (eds.), Erramu Boneta: Festcrift for Rudolf P.G. de Rijk. [Supplements of the International Journal of Basque Lingustics and Philology (ASJU) XLIV]. Bilbo: UPV/EHU. 1-20.

Arregi, Karlos. 2004. «The Have / Be alternation in Basque». manuscript, Univ of Chicago.

Euskaltzaindia. 1987. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak II. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1997]

Hualde José Ignacio. 2003. «Non-finite Forms». In José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 202-210.

de Rijk, Rudolf P.G.. 2008. Standard Basque: A progressive grammar. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juanjo Olasagarre
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
Yes
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
Yes
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
Yes
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
Yes
Aritz Irurtzun
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Hernani
Central Basque
Yes
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
Yes
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
Yes
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñaki Camino
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
Yes
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
Yes
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
Yes
Ane Odria
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Hernani
Central Basque
Yes
Eñaut Agirre
Itsasondo
Central Basque
Yes
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
Yes
Koldo Zuazo
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñaki Camino
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Céline Mounole
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Larresoro
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Céline Mounole
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
Yes
Maider Bedaxagar
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Azpeitia
Central Basque
No
Patxi Goenaga
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Etxaleku (Imotz)
Central Basque
No
Imotz
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
No
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Irun
Central Basque
No
Ricardo Etxepare
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
No
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
No
Oihana Astobieta
Mallabia
Western Basque
No
Koldo Zuazo
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.