Features

19. Ergative/absolutive syncretism in the plural: ­-ak (v -ek)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) Neskak irabazi dute

Hualde, José Ignacio and Ander Beristain. 2017. «Azpeitiko azentuaren gauzatze fonetikoaz». Fontes Linguae Vasconum 123: 65-86.

Hualde, José Ignacio and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.). 2003. A grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

de Rijk, Rudolf P.G.. 2008. Standard Basque: A progressive grammar. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

Generalized pattern. The ergative singular marker is -ak and the ergative plural marker is -ek (-ak + -k > -ek).

(1) Neskek irabazi dute
girls.ERG win.PTCP (3ABS).have.3PL.ERG
‘The girls won.’

Variational pattern. Western and Central varieties show -ak both in singular and plural and have usually been differentiated by means of stress.

(2) Neskak irabazi dute
girls.ERG win.PTCP (3ABS).have.3PL.ERG
‘The girls won.’

Chapter: Case and Agreement

Keywords: case, ergative

References:

de Rijk (2008: 198), Hualde and Ortiz de Urbina (2003: 180), Hualde and Beristain (2017)

Hualde, José Ignacio and Ander Beristain. 2017. «Azpeitiko azentuaren gauzatze fonetikoaz». Fontes Linguae Vasconum 123: 65-86.

Hualde, José Ignacio and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.). 2003. A grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

de Rijk, Rudolf P.G.. 2008. Standard Basque: A progressive grammar. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

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BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Beizama
Central Basque
Yes
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
Yes
Ane Odria
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
Yes
Eñaut Agirre
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Orreaga Ibarra
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.