Features

68. Potential by means of modal particle ahal: apurtzen ahal da (v apur daiteke)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) Leihoa apurtzen ahal da
(3) Leihoa apurtu ahal da

Euskaltzaindia. 1987. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak II. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1997]

iv. Mood

Generalized pattern. Potential mood is expressed by means of a periphrasis involving the verbal root and the potential form of the auxiliary verbs *edin/*ezan.

(1) Leihoa apur daiteke
window.ABS break (3ABS).edin.ke
  ‘The window may break’

Variational pattern 1. In some varieties, the modal periphrasis consists of the imperfective form of the verb, that is, the nominalized form of the verb headed by the inessive, the modal particle ahal, and the auxiliaries izan and *edun.

(2) Leihoa apurtzen ahal da
window.ABS break.IMPV ahal (3ABS).be
 ‘The window may break’

Variational pattern 2. In some varieties, the modal periphrasis consists of the participial form of the verb, the modal particle ahal and the auxiliaries izan and *edun.

(3) Leihoa apurtu ahal da
window.ABS break.PTCP ahal (3ABS).be
‘The window may break’

Chapter: Mood

Keywords: aspect, imperfective, mood, participle, potential, verb

References:

Euskaltzaindia (1987: 430,459)

Euskaltzaindia. 1987. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak II. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1997]

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñaki Camino
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
Yes
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Maitena Duhalde
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
No
Xabier Bilbao
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
No
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
No
Oihana Astobieta
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
Yes
Ane Odria
Gernika
Western Basque
Yes
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Lekeitio
Western Basque
Yes
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
Yes
Oihana Astobieta
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.