Features

59. Negation in imperative clauses: ez zaitezela joan (v ez zaitez joan)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) Ez zaitezela joan

Lafitte, Pierre. 1944. Grammaire Basque (Navarro-Labourdin Littèraire). Baiona: Librairie Le Livre. [Reprinted in 1979. Donostia: Elkar]

Oyharçabal, Bernard. 2000. «Note à propos des formes jussives préfixées en b- du basque». Lapurdum, 5: 225-235.

Generalized pattern. Imperative clauses consisting of analytical verbs may appear along with negation.

(1) Ez zaitez joan
no 2ABS.edin.IMP go
‘Don't go.’

Variational pattern. Some varieties need to add the complementizer -(e)la to the auxiliaries in negative contexts.

(2) Ez zaitezela joan
no 2ABS.edin.ELA go
‘Don't go.’

Chapter: Complementizer

Keywords: complementizer, imperative, negation, subjunctive, verb

References:

Oyharçabal (2000), Lafitte (1944: 865)

Lafitte, Pierre. 1944. Grammaire Basque (Navarro-Labourdin Littèraire). Baiona: Librairie Le Livre. [Reprinted in 1979. Donostia: Elkar]

Oyharçabal, Bernard. 2000. «Note à propos des formes jussives préfixées en b- du basque». Lapurdum, 5: 225-235.

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juan Jose Zubiri
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Orreaga Ibarra
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñaki Camino
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
Yes
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Maitena Duhalde
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Getxo
Western Basque
No
Xabier Bilbao
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
No
Arantzazu Elordieta
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.