Features

25. Auxiliaries *edin/ezan in relative clauses: pozgarri zekizkion hitzak (v pozgarri zitzaizkion hitzak)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) pozgarri ekiozan berbak esaten hasi zan

Euskaltzaindia (forthcoming). Euskararen gramatika orokorra. Ms., Euskaltzaindia.

Generalized pattern. Relative clauses containing analytical verbs involve the auxiliary izan ‘be’ or *edun ‘have’ (1). However, when the relative clause has potential mood or is the apodosis of a conditional, the auxiliary selected can be either *edin or *ezan.

(1) pozgarri zitzaizkion hitzak esaten hasi zen
nice (3ABS).izan.PL.APP.3SG.PST words say.IMPV start.PTCV was
‘She/he started to say worth that made her/him happy’

Variational pattern. Some varieties can select the auxiliary *edin or *ezan/egin also in non-potential and non-conditional relative clauses.

(2) pozgarri ekiozan berbak esaten hasi zan
nice (3ABS).edin.APP.3SG.DAT.PL.PST words say.IMPV start.PTCV was
‘She/he started to say words that made her/him happy’

Chapter: Auxiliary Alternation

Keywords: auxiliary alternation, mood, relatives, root alternation, subjunctive

References:

Euskaltzaindia (forthcoming)

Euskaltzaindia (forthcoming). Euskararen gramatika orokorra. Ms., Euskaltzaindia.

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BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Getxo
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Bilbao
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
No
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
No
Pello Salaburu
Artea
Western Basque
No
Igor Estankona
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Errenteria
Central Basque
No
Aritz Irurtzun
Gernika
Western Basque
No
Alaine Barruetabeña
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
No
Eñaut Agirre
Itsasondo
Central Basque
No
Urtzi Etxeberria
Lekeitio
Western Basque
No
Arantzazu Elordieta
Loiu
Western Basque
No
Oihana Astobieta
Mezkiritz (Erroibar)
Navarrese Basque
No
Orreaga Ibarra
Mungia
Western Basque
No
Miren Ibarluzea
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Otxandio
Western Basque
No
Xabier Burgete
Urdiain
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñigo Urrestarazu
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Maitena Duhalde

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.