Features

24. Allocutives beyond declarative clauses: di(n)ala (v duela)
Yellow: variational pattern attested
Blue: variational pattern non-attested
(2) Zenbat joan ditun/k elkar ikusi gabe?
(3) Konfliktoa ezinbestekoa duk, tramak aurrera egingo badik
(4) Eguraldi ona egingo di(n)ala pentsatzen dinat

Haddican, Bill. 2018. «The syntax of Basque allocutive clitics»Glossa: a journal of general linguistics3(1), 101.

Alberdi, Xabier. 1996. Euskararen tratamenduak: erabilera. Bilbo: Euskaltzaindia.

Euskaltzaindia. 1987. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak II. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1997]

de Rijk, Rudolf P.G.. 2008. Standard Basque: A progressive grammar. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

Generalized pattern. Allocutive forms only appear in main declarative clauses and not it embedded clauses.

(1) Eguraldi ona egingo duela pentsatzen dinat/diat
weather good make.PROS (3ABS).have.ELA think.IPFV (3ABS).have.APPL.ALLO.F.1SG.ERG/ (3ABS).have.APPL.ALLO.M.1SG.ERG
'I think there will be good weather.'

Variational pattern 1. In some varieties, allocutive forms can occur in interrogative clauses too.

(2) Zenbat joan ditun/k elkar ikusi gabe? (Gure Jerusalem galdua, Aingeru Epaltza)
how many go (3ABS).have.APPL. ALLO.F/M each other see without
'How many passed away without seein each other?'

Variational pattern 2. In some varieties, allocutive forms can occur beyond main clauses.

Subvariational pattern 1
. In some varieties, allocutive forms show up in the protasis of conditional clauses.

(3) Konfliktoa ezinbestekoa duk, tramak aurrera egingo badik. ((Euskal) literaturaren alde (eta kontra), Iban Zaldua)
conflict essential (3ABS).have.ALLO.M, plot.ERG forward make.pros ba.(3ABS).have.APPL.ALLO.M
'The conflict is essential if the plot moves forward.'

Subvariational pattern 2
In some other varieties, allocutive forms can appear in embedded clauses too.

(4) Eguraldi ona egingo di(n)ala pentsatzen di(n)at.
weather good make.pros (3ABS).have.APPL.ALLO.F.ELA think.IPFV (3ABS).have.APPL.ALLO.F.1SG.ERG
'I think that the weather will be good.'

Reported in: western varieties

Chapter: Case and Agreement

Keywords: allocutives, embedding

References:

Haddican (2018), Alberdi (1996), de Rijk (2008), Euskaltzaindia (1987: 390-92)

Haddican, Bill. 2018. «The syntax of Basque allocutive clitics»Glossa: a journal of general linguistics3(1), 101.

Alberdi, Xabier. 1996. Euskararen tratamenduak: erabilera. Bilbo: Euskaltzaindia.

Euskaltzaindia. 1987. Euskal Gramatika: Lehen Urratsak II. Iruñea: Institución Príncipe de Viana eta Euskaltzaindia. [Reprinted in Euskaltzaindia. 1997]

de Rijk, Rudolf P.G.. 2008. Standard Basque: A progressive grammar. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Beizama
Central Basque
Yes
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
Yes
Ane Odria
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
Yes
Eñaut Agirre
Itsasondo
Central Basque
Yes
Urtzi Etxeberria
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Iñaki Camino
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Maitena Duhalde
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Aramaio
Western Basque
Yes
Txipi Ormaetxea
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Beizama
Central Basque
Yes
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
Yes
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
Yes
Ane Odria
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juan Jose Zubiri
Hernani
Central Basque
Yes
Eñaut Agirre
Itsasondo
Central Basque
Yes
Urtzi Etxeberria
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Itxaro Borda
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Maitena Duhalde
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar
save answers as csv | xls | xml
BiV code
Town
Dialect
Value
Contributor
Arbizu
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Juanjo Olasagarre
Arizkun (Baztan)
Navarrese Basque
Yes
Pello Salaburu
Artea
Western Basque
Yes
Igor Estankona
Hernani
Central Basque
Yes
Eñaut Agirre
Itsasondo
Central Basque
Yes
Urtzi Etxeberria
Mungia
Western Basque
Yes
Miren Ibarluzea
Otxandio
Western Basque
Yes
Xabier Burgete
Ziburu
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
Yes
Maitena Duhalde
Aramaio
Western Basque
No
Txipi Ormaetxea
Beizama
Central Basque
No
Lourdes Otaegi
Bergara
Western Basque
No
Alexander Artzelus
Elgoibar
Western Basque
No
Ane Odria
Goizueta
Navarrese Basque
No
Juan Jose Zubiri
Oragarre
Navarrese-Lapurdian Basque
No
Itxaro Borda
Orbaizeta
Navarrese Basque
No
Iñaki Camino
Urdiñarbe
Zuberoan Basque
No
Maider Bedaxagar

ABL: ablative

ABS: absolutive

ABSERG: absolutive in Ergative Displacement context

ALL: allative

ALLO: allocutive

APPL: applicative

BN: bounded

CAUS: causative

COMP: complementizer

DAT: dative

DD: dative displacement

DEST: destinative

ED: Ergative Displacement

ERG: ergative

FAM: familiar

F: feminine

GEN: genitive

IPFV: imperfective

INE: inessive

INS: instrumental

M: masculine

MOD: mood

NMLZ: nominalizer

NONFAM: non-familiar (2nd person)

NP: noun phrase

PTCP: participle

PST: past

PL: plural

POST: postposition

PROG: progressive

PROS: prospective

PRTV: partitive

REL: relational postposition

RES: resultative

SG: singular

SOC: sociative

TERM: terminative

UNBN : unbounded

The abbreviations in this database follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.